A fine, closely written, authorial manuscript of Santayana's review of Lippmann's A Preface to Morals (1929) appearing in the New Adelphi, 3, 1929-30, and in the Saturday Review on December 7, 1929. With a single word variant in the first paragraph where Santayana's MS gives "perceived" rather than "conceived" in the printed version: "Very few would give up living as they live, simply because they had conceived, in some lucid moment, that it wasn't worth while." While Lippmann is considered one of the fathers of the modern study of public opinion, the influence Santayana had in the shaping of Lippmann's ideas is often overlooked. The influence Santayana had on Lippmann was evident from their very first meeting in 1907, when the latter enrolled in a Greek philosophy course taught by Santayana. That same year Lippmann read Santayana's Life of Reason. The second volume of this 5 volume work lays out Santayana's ideas on good government, notions that coincide with the later thinking of the mature Lippmann. Santayana's influence led Lippmann to study philosophy after abandoning art history which had originally brought Lippmann to Harvard. During his remaining years in Cambridge Lippmann took all of the philosophy courses offered by Santayana. During this period there existed a mutual fascination between the two. In 1910 Santayana nominated Lippmann as assistant professor in philosophy, a position given up by Lippmann only one year later. In 1929, John Middleton Murry, editor of the New Adelphi, asked Santayana for a critique of Lippmann's A Preface to Morals, claiming that it would be of interest to read Santayana's opinion of his disciple's work. - César García, "Walter Lippmann and George Santayana: A Shared Vision of Society and Public Opinion." (The Journal of American Culture, 29:2, 2006), pp.183-185. In his September 17 reply to Murry, Santayana writes of Lippmann: "I hardly think of Lippmann as a disciple of mine, but he was once my pupil, and I saw him again last winter in Rome. If you will send me his Preface to Morals, I shall certainly read it with interest; and if nothing should occur to me worth saying about it, I think I can promise to send you something else instead." - Holzberger, William H., ed. The Letters of George Santayana, Fourth Book: 1928-1932, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002), p.130. Santayana completed his review by October of 1929: "Here is somebody [Lippmann] who confidently believes that mankind can endure the truth; and mankind seems to be gallantly confirming his good opinion, since we are told that his book is selling in America by the hundred thousand. This success is not due to scandal: nothing could be more respectful, more scrupulous, more modest than Mr Lippmann's sincerity. But he tells us that religion is decayed, and that the whole system of morals founded on religion has lost its authority." "It would be interesting to hear what he [Lippmann] foresees will be the ruling passions, favourite pleasures, and dominant beliefs of mankind, when the hitherto adventurous, selfish human animal has become thoroughly socialized, mechanized, hygienic, and irreligious. In this book we learn little of this..." Further in his review, Santayana writes: "Producers produce, inventors invent, advertizers advertize, the public is coaxed when it is not stampeded, new needs are created, luxury spreads, phrases, ideas, and enthusiasms sweep over the well-rooted but pliable nation like summer winds over a field of corn. Everybody pushes, and everybody yields to pressure; but as the pushed is one and those pushing him are many millions, his ultimate movement is in God's hands rather than in his own. Now this predicament, with which most people put up good-naturedly so long as, on the whole, they are prosperous, seems to Mr Lippmann most favourable to 'high religion'. It involves a continual surrender of childish wishes and arbitrary ideas." "Human nature in the individual is accordingly autonomous. It may find or establish points or support outside, in material forces or in what we call the arts: society, science and cooperative industry may supply special fields or special instruments for the exercise of human faculty and since human nature is variable and subject to education, these ambient influences may modify the character of certain men.... But the appeal of these new sanctities must still be to the individual heart. If pure science or social equilibrium or the blind multiplication, complication, and acceleration of business took the bit in their teeth, and imposed themselves on the human soul otherwise than in its own interest, they would be nothing but insufferable pests and new embodiments of Moloch." Santayana concludes: "The virility and chivalry of virtue lie precisely in being inflexibly true to oneself... I commend this reflection to those who feel safe in their ethics and politics if they think they are swimming with the tide - a form of cowardice peculiarly modern and peculiarly short-sighted. Tides will turn, and even at the flood they are not the foundation of the human good, nor the criterion of it. The foundation, like the criterion, is in the heart." In a letter to Murry of October 5, Santayana writes: "Canby, the editor of the New York Saturday Review of Literature, whom you probably have heard of, and who is an old acquaintance of mine, has lately written asking for a contribution, and he expressly said that anything I wrote for him might be simultaneously published in England. If it were possible for you to send him, or to send me for him, an advanced proof or copy of this article, so that it might appear in New York at about the same time as in London, I should be glad of it...". - Holzberger, ibid, p.132. Santayana's review, "Enduring the Truth", appeared in Murry's New Adelphi in London and in the Saturday Review in the U.S. in December 1929 and is apparently unpublished in book-form. Lippmann's response, "A Footnote to Santayana", was printed in the very same issue of the Saturday Review. Santayana replied in a January 16, 1930 letter to Henry Seidel Canby (the Saturday Review's first editor). Santayana admits to feeling "... surprised at the tone of Lippmann's reply to my article. I thought he would be pleased, and certainly I had liked his book very much; but apparently he requires us all to share his vague hopes of 'high religious' worldly organization, and is angry if we are attached to some different political ideal." - Holzberger, ibid, p.158. According to García, "there is no evidence that the two men ever met again." - García, op. cit, p.185. Faint trace of old paper clip residue on the first and final leaves, folded once from mailing, otherwise the manuscript is in fine condition, in its original packaging as despatched to W.D. Richey of Bethany College by Charles Rare Books, Buntingford, Herts in 1958. Large 8vo, 10 pages, on unlined printed stationery, Villa Le Balze, Fiesole, written on versos only.